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Week 5: Data Collection



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Data collection is at the center of research because the facts gathered will contribute new information as well as answer the research question. For this discussion, please respond to each of the following topics.

  • Refine your PICOT question.
  • Explain your specific research approach (qualitative or quantitative) and how it has the potential to answer your research question.


  • Discuss you data collection method, addressing strengths and identifying one potential weakness.
  • Identify the actions you are proposing that will help ensure that quality data may be produced by your EBP project.

Welcome to Week 5 Introduction

After establishing the research approach and sample, it is time to consider data collection and analysis. Both quantitative and qualitative research approaches have a variety of methods that may be used to collect data. With quantitative research, all of the methods are focused on producing numerical data. In contrast, data collection for qualitative research produces textual data. No matter the research approach, the quality of the data is very important in order to transfer the information to any practice setting. Once quality data have been collected, then analysis begins. Week 5 will focus on data-collection methods and data analysis for both research approaches.

Week 1

Dr. Adams and class,

Evidence based practice involves using individual clinical experiences as well as best evaluated clinical evidence based on research for clinical practice. It is crucial as it provides best clinical care to the patients.


Area of research

My identified area of research/ identified evidence-based practice is Infection control. Since my specialist track is Nurse Educator and since I educate the public either in classrooms or in clinical set-ups, I find the chosen evidence based practice quite appropriate. This is because in infection control, I educate people on how to prevent illnesses before they happen maybe by initiating hygienic environments through wearing of gloves, using barrier precautions and also practicing hand washing.

MSN Program Specialty and Its Relevance to EBP

My chosen MSN specialty track is nurse educator. The identified EBP is consistent with the MSN program in that whereas the roles of nurse educators are continued education specialist as well as work hand in hand with students in a class setting, the identified EBP is part of this education plan as infection and infectious diseases form part of the many discussions that are held in a nurse educators’ class. Even though the nurses have many responsibilities bestowed on them, infection control and educating others about it is worth undertaking.

Would You Like to Change Your Area of Research or EBP Interest from NR 500? Why or Why Not?

I wish not to change my area of research/ EBP interest as it was in NR 500. The role of a nurse educator will give me enough experience in my nursing career. The many roles that a nurse educator has, has given a clear relation with what my identified EBP is. Of late, hospital acquired infections are very common yet it is the last information an admitted patient would wish to have happened to him/her. Nurses therefore play a crucial role in ensuring that illnesses that can be acquired through a hospital setting are avoided as much as possible (Dogherty, Harrison, Graham, Vandyk, & Keeping‐Burke, 2013). I therefore can’t change this area of research as I wish to understand the various ways through which patients contract diseases and how nurses can help mitigate the issue. Learning about infection control will also help me advice health care providers on the ways they can ensure that they don’t incur additional costs as a result of the spread of infectious diseases.

Defend How Your Area of Research/EBP Interest Is of Importance to The MSN Program Specialty Track You Have Selected

Infectious control is very important to a nurse educator since the educator is supposed to train the community of a health facility or students in a classroom on how to implement infectious control practices among other issues. Modern infection control mechanisms are based on scientific work that will help a nurse educator gain more knowledge and skills and hence transfer it to the target audience. Infection control practices such as washing of hands, immunization, and employee education as well as screening of health employees are important aspects that have to be used by a nurse educator in designing curriculum content that will be effective in teaching future nursing practitioners.

Identify an Initial PICOT/Pico Question

Should hand washing practices be embraced as ways of reducing hospital acquired infections among health care workers?

P- The problem is the infection acquired in hospital

I-The intervention is washing of hands

C- The comparison is use of masks if hand washing is not possible

O-The outcome is reduced levels of infection at health facility.

 HI Jamie,

I am not quite sue I understand your question. Are you wondering if hand-washing prevents the spread of infection? We already know this to be true. Are you interested in issues of compliance with hand washing and how to get healthcare workers to comply with hand-washing?

I am a little uncertain of your population and of your PICOT question.

Is it something like

P: In healthcare workers

I: Does the implementation of a hand washing reminder system

C: Compared to no reminder system

O: Improve hand washing compliance ultimately reducing patient infection

Let me know!

Dr. Adams

Hi Jamie,

This is a good question, but I think we have already established that hand washing decreases HAIs, but I think on of the main issues is getting hospital workers to be compliant with hand washing as frequently and as effectively as possible.

Dr. Adams and class,

Will You Be Using a Quantitative or Qualitative Approach for Your EBP Project Proposal?

I will be using qualitative approach for my Evidence Based Practice Project through qualitative interviews and analyzing the data using a methodology that can be interpreted to explore how the various interviewed groups perceive hand washing and general hygiene in nursing practice. The methodology will involve developing themes that analyze individuals, the workforce and the management on what they perceive about hand washing (Randle, Arthur, & Vaughan, 2010).

Explain Why This Approach Is the Best One to Provide Information for Your Area of Interest

It is first important to underscore the fact that both quantitative and qualitative approaches provide data that is crucial in evidence based practice. However, I opted to use qualitative approach because it supports both personal and experimental knowledge whose implementation will be critical in my chosen evidence based practice. Besides this, qualitative approach provides findings which are easy to interpret for many nursing practitioners (Pincock, Bernstein, Warthman & Holst, 2012). Qualitative approaches also involve the patients through interviews and questionnaires and as such they feel part of the exercise. For my chosen EBP, it will help them advocate more for hand washing as the results provided will be directly linked to what they provide as feedback.

Create A PICOT/Pico Question Using The PICOT/Pico Format for Quantitative and Pico for Qualitative Approaches.

So does the effective hand washing and frequency of hand washing among health care workers determine the rate of Health Care Acquired Infections (HAI’s)? My PICOT question based on qualitative approach will be as follows.

P: The problem is improper hand washing as well as low hand washing frequency among health care workers as a source of health care related infections.

I: The intervention is training and educating health care workers on the need to not only wash hands but do it frequently to reduce the rate of Health Care acquired Infections

C: The comparison we make is for hospital workers who properly and frequently wash their hands with those who don’t wash well or wash but not frequently

O: The expected outcome is reduction of the Health Acquired Infections due to improved hand washing practices.

T: The time could be the length the health care worker stays in hospital.

Identify Your Practice Question, Being Sure to Include the Following.

Phenomenon or Concept of Interest

                  It is common knowledge that effective hand washing practices helps reduce the rate of infections in a hospital setting. A wrong assumption however continues to be made that such infections are as a result of patient transmission and not health care workers. The logic I try to pass through my EBP is to also consider health care workers as a way of helping to curb the rate of spread of infections. My essay leaned towards health care workers other than patients.

Group or Population of Interest

                  The first group to be targeted is the health care workers since they form the central reason for the research. Secondly, it will be important to look at how the hospital management helps promote hand washing practices among workers, Patients will also be interviewed to analyze their perception on hand washing practices among health care workers.

Suggestion of Which Qualitative Research Design Is Being Used

                   The suggested research design is to use respondents through questionnaires as well as one on one interviews. Since there is a target group, it will be important to do careful sampling based on departments or the position the health care worker holds so that data is even more meaningful when interpreted. The sampling will also be important as it may not be possible to conduct research for all workers and hence the sampled ones may be a representative of what the report was intended to serve.

Yes, effective hand washing is the concern, as silly as that may sound. Hand hygiene is a simple basic skill we learn in nursing school, and I am sure other healthcare staff have a similar hands on class regarding proper hand hygiene and the effectiveness of proper hand hygiene. The focus will be to use qualitative approaches to explore how effective hand washing and at the right frequency by healthcare workers can be used as an effective tool in reducing spread of infections in a hospital setting. 

In my nursing practice specialty track, failure by healthcare workers to effectively and frequently wash their hands is a common trend that happens from day to day and in almost all departments of a hospital setting. Lack of concern in washing hands is spread across many areas such as from taking a call of nature, sterilizing equipment, and even in simple body contacts such as greetings. Every person who has contact with others should also be included in the education of proper hand hygiene. The more we focus on effective and proper hand hygiene the less risk we have to our patients especially the higher risk patients in ICU, isolation, and post op areas.

Again thank you for your feedback, it is helping shape up my proposal, it was to broad before.



PICO Question

P: Among health care workers and patients,

I: Does hand washing protocol,

C. Compared to no hand washing protocol,

0: minimize hospital acquired infections in an adult in-patient critical care department in the course of hospitalization

Research Approach

Data collection is an integral part of any research method. Inefficient and misleading data collection techniques can adversely affect the outcomes of a study and ultimately contribute to misleading findings. The selected data collection techniques depend on the research method adopted. For my research problem, I will employ qualitative research approach. Qualitative data collection techniques evaluate the impact by providing information valuable to understand the processes behind the witnessed outcomes and analyze changes in the …

Data Collection Method

            Interviews will help explore the experiences, views, beliefs and motivations of patients and health care workers with respect to a hand washing protocol. Interviews provide a better and in-depth understanding of a social issue than would be learnt from a quantitative approach technique such as questionnaire. Since …

When formulating the interview schedule it will be paramount to incorporate questions that have a high potential of yielding as much data about the issue of hand washing protocol as possible and also assist in addressing the objectives of the study. The questions should be open-ended, understandable, sensitive and …

Before the study commences, the respondents will be briefed about the fine details of the research process. The ethical issues such as confidentiality will also be explained in advance. This ….

One of the main weakness of interviews as data collection tool in research is time wastage. Data analysis tend to be complex and time consuming. After data collection, interview data requires …

Proposed Actions

A number of measures could be adopted to help produce quality data. First of all, I would encourage the interviewer to reflect on remarks made by respondents. The remarks should also be probed for better understanding. For instance, if a respondent says that the effectiveness of hand washing protocol would depend on its simplicity, it would be wise to seek clarification for a better understanding (Flick, 2018). Secondly, it would…

ReferenceTop of Form

Flick, U. (2018). The Sage handbook of qualitative data collection. London: Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications Ltd

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