In this task, you will analyze one recent outbreak of a communicable disease. This outbreak must have occurred within the last 50 years and includes human to human transmission across an international border. (Example: Measles outbreak that was documented from the Philippines to the United States).
Make sure that you address one selected outbreak rather than the history of an epidemic/pandemic.
Review the task instructions and rubric. (note to my writer: I will submit the rubric to you separately to show what they will be looking for and how this paper will be graded)
Choose ONE of the following communicable diseases to address in your task:
● Influenza (human to human)
● respiratory syndrome coronavirus
● meningococcal disease
● Ebola virus
● hepatitis B
● hepatitis C
● Zika virus
As you write the task, you will be addressing different aspects related to the selected outbreak including epidemiological determinants and mode of transmission of the disease.
In addition, you will analyze effects of a hypothetical outbreak of this disease on your community at a systems level including effects on local government, schools, businesses, and hospitals/health care systems. (note to my writer: my community is Virginia Beach, VA)
Set up paper using headings and subheadings found in the Taskstream directions/Template. (for example: B2. Route of Transmission)
(note to my writer: please refer to the Task 2 template that I will submit to you separately)
Task 2 topics and tips for headings and subheadings:
A. Select ONE of the listed diseases and find a recent SPECIFIC OUTBREAK. You are addressing a single outbreak of the disease that has occurred in the last 50 years. Do not confuse this with a global pandemic or epidemic. The World Health Organization and/or the CDC– are great resources to help you track down a global outbreak.
The specific outbreak needs to be a documented outbreak with numbers of cases, dates, and other epidemiological data. It does not need to be an outbreak in your specific community nor does it have to have entered the United States.
B. Describe the outbreak of the disease selected in Part A, including each of the following:
● Name of the disease
● The countries involved
● The date the outbreak was discovered
● The dates the disease reached each country
In your description, include the following information:
● There were x number of confirmed/suspected cases in country one for x number of days, from x month/year to x month/year.
● How the disease crossed international borders (identify travel, vector, refugees, etc. as the culprit).
● How many were infected, y number of individuals in the next country, for y number of days, from y month/year to y month/year.
B1. Analyze the EPIDEMIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS of the outbreak. Once you have found a specific outbreak, you can discuss the epidemiological determinants of this outbreak more fully.
Describe the specific details of the causative agent, geographical spread, hosts, mode of transmission, incubation and communicability periods, symptoms, mortality rate, morbidity characteristics of those affected, etc. Where appropriate you will provide specific data.
What are epidemiological determinants? A determinant is anything that increases disease frequency in a population. Risk Factors and Transmission are both epidemiological determinants.
However, you should discuss other determinants relevant for your outbreak here such as
infectivity (how easily is it spread?), virulence (how deadly is it?), mode of transmission
(Vector? Contact? Aerosol?), climate considerations (i.e. does the vector survive arid or
cold temperatures?), antigenic stability (i.e. Influenza) and any other appropriate variable.
Discuss any RISK FACTORS involved. Risk factors typically address the condition of the
host (patient) and environment.
Some examples of risk factors would be age, occupation, immune-compromised status, unvaccinated status, lack of prior exposure to the disease, smoking, living in close quarters (i.e. military, prisons, college dormitories), vector exposure, etc.
B2. Discuss the national and international ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION of the disease
causing the outbreak. See this WHO Transmission of Communicable Diseases on aircraft
document. (note to my writer: link to review this document if air travel is relevant to our chosen outbreak: https://www.who.int/ith/mode_of_travel/tcd_aircraft/en/ )
Discuss how the disease was spread geographically. Was air travel to blame?
Migration? More local travel? Other? And then explain where it went over time.
B3. If an outbreak occurred in your community, how would it affect the community at a SYSTEMS LEVEL?
Include information on how the outbreak would affect the schools, local government,
businesses and hospitals. Predict the effect of an outbreak on the FUNCTIONING of your
city/county. You will want to address additional things like hospital overflow, transportation issues, economic productivity, etc.
Assume the worst-case scenario. This should be a “logical discussion”. What would be the effect on schools? Would they need to close? Would government offices need to close, etc.? Would the hospitals have the staff to care for an outbreak? Could they handle the individuals coming to the clinics or put others at risk? Would it overburden the health system of the community, etc.?
B4. REPORTING PROTOCOL. As a community health nurse, who would you report a new case to? Who would they report it to?
What is your county’s reporting process? Your state legislature should have laws for the
reporting of communicable diseases when suspected or actual. What does your Health
Department, local and state level, indicate for reporting protocol for your selected
communicable disease? (recall, my community is Virginia Beach, VA)
B5. Discuss two strategies (e.g., patient education strategies, community education
strategies) that you would recommend to PREVENT AN OUTBREAK in your community.
You may want to review the following;
Infection, Don’t Pass it on!
and the CDC’s Weekly Morbidity and Mortality Report
Ebola epidemic in Guinea began in December 2013, but it was not until March 24, 2014, that the virus was detected. Later, the virus spread to the neighboring country of Liberia as a result of people crossing the border between the two neighboring countries (Kaner & Schaack, 2016). Liberia’s Ebola cases were first reported in March 30, 2014. By December 31 the same year, 2707 individuals were confirmed to be infected with the virus in Guinea out of which 1708 had died representing a case-fatality rate of 63.1% (Simon-Loriere et al., 2015). Similarly, in Liberia, by December 31, 2014, 8018 cases had been reported out of which 3423 had died representing a fatality rate of 42.7% (Kateh, et al., 2015). In May, 2014, Liberia was declared to be free of Ebola despite some individuals…