HOMEWORK HELP | Choose 2 topics from the list of systems theories and conceptual models below:

Choose 2 topics from the list of systems theories and conceptual models below:
• General systems theory
• Chaos theory
• Complexity theory
• Learning organization theory
• Systems model of change
• Viable systems model

• Describe each of the 2 selected theories/models including an overview and details in the form of key elements and relationships between the elements. Visual depictions are encouraged.
• Compare and contrast the 2 selected theories/models. Consider the following:
• What phenomenon or phenomena is the theory or model addressing?
• How are the elements of each theory/model similar? How do they differ?
• Where do the theories/models complement one another in explaining organizations as systems?
• Explain what complex adaptive systems (CAS) thinking is and how the 2 theories/models inform or support CAS. A visual depiction of CAS is encouraged.


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General Systems Theory (GST) mainly focuses on how a system operates and integrates an array of systems by recognizing and identifying processes and patterns that all systems have in common (Amagoh, 2016). In theory, a system consists of elements or subsystems whose interdependence and inter-relationships work together towards stability in the system. GST relies on inputs to transmit energy or matter and information from the systems environment while the output moves energy or matter and information out of the system to the surroundings. Both the output and input must cross the system’s boundary.

Complexity theory emphasizes on disparities or heterogeneity in different subsystems and attempts to explain how the components at each sublevel affect the outcome and behavior of the whole system (Amagoh, 2016). This theory posits that the most creative stage of any system lies on the boundary of chaos | PLACE YOUR ORDER NOW AT writtask.com | theory suggests that systems operating on the edge of instability foster creativity producing innovative and creative behaviors. Kuhn et al. (2015) suggested that in the complexity model systems keep organizing themselves and evolve into new transformations.

Comparison between GST and Complexity Theory

Phenomena of the two Theories Address

Scientists have used GST to understand organizations as organic systems with elements that relate to each other and any change in any of the components affects every other relationship in | PLACE YOUR ORDER NOW AT writtask.com | in any of the components causes a ripple effect that changes all the others. GST differentiates between closed and open systems. In an open system, the organization relies on the environment for sustenance, which is the opposite of a closed system. Therefore, GST tries to explain the organization as an open system whose input and throughput, interact with one another over the organization’s boundary to produce an output | PLACE YOUR ORDER NOW AT writtask.com | theory on the other hand explains organizations as complex structures that receive information from their surroundings and produces knowledge for | PLACE YOUR ORDER NOW AT writtask.com | order and structure, both closed and open whereas complexity theory predominantly associates with open systems characterized by chaos and randomness where patterns emerge (Amagoh, 2016).

How Elements are Similar/ Differ

GST acknowledges different forms of causality, which include linear chains, linearity, mutual causation, and several concurrent | PLACE YOUR ORDER NOW AT writtask.com | theory suggests that systems are processes that are self-organizing, unpredictable, and non-linear that traditional methods cannot analyze or manage. As such, complexity theory does not analyze individual components, instead it views the connections between the elements, alongside the system’s adaptability to changes in the environmental | PLACE YOUR ORDER NOW AT writtask.com | elements in GST follow certain rules and protocols of which their interactions and outcomes are predictable and any change in one of the rules results in significant changes in the relationships and outcomes (Turner & Baker, 2019). The complexity theory however follows the connectionist approach w…


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