HOMEWORK HELP | A 55 year old male presents after a fall in his back yard.

A 55 year old male presents after a fall in his back yard. His diagnosis is a 12 year battle with Parkinson’s Disease.

How does Bradykinesia manifest?
What causes postural instability in this patient?
Compare and contrast pyramidal vs. extrapyramidal.
Compare and contrast myelinated and unmyelinated fibers.


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Parkinson’s Disease Case Study

How does Bradykinesia manifest?

Bradykinesia refers to the slowness of movement and the inability to swiftly move the body on command and is a cardinal symptom of Parkinson’s disease (Cutsuridis, 2013). The condition presents as unusually slow movements coupled with several other symptoms including feet shuffling in walking, hauling one or both legs when walking, experiencing little or no facial movements, and frozen muscles in that their reactions are slowed to the extent that they become stiff and unable to move for some time. Other symptoms include difficulties in performing repetitive actions such as hand clapping and difficulties in readying up daily, for example brushing teeth or buttoning. In Parkinson’s Diseases patients, bradykinesia causes them to lose the ability to speak clearly (Cutsuridis, 2013).

What Causes Postural Instability in This Patient

It is not yet clear what causes postural instability. The majority of motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are due to damaged dopamine secreting cells in the brain. Dopamine is the chemical messenger that relays messages to the brain to produce normal | PLACE YOUR ORDER NOW AT writtask.com | instability in PD patients is not due to a reduction in dopamine production but is linked to damages to some other brain part. One theory to explain the causes of postural instability holds that it could result due to damaging of noradrenergic | PLACE YOUR ORDER NOW AT writtask.com | are the neurons responsible for producing a neurotransmitter called norepinephrine (Cutsuridis, 2013).

Compare and Contrast Pyramidal Vs. Extrapyramidal

Extrapyramidal is the neural network and an essential component of the motor system responsible for involuntary reflex and coordination of | PLACE YOUR ORDER NOW AT writtask.com | extrapyramidal to differentiate it from the motor cortex tracts reaching their targets moving through the pyramids in the middle part | PLACE YOUR ORDER NOW AT writtask.com | pyramidal system can innervate directly the motor nerve cells in the spinal cord or brainstem, while the extrapyramidal pathways center on modulating and regulating the anterior horn cells (Arslan, 2014).

Pyramidal neurons are made up of upper motor nerve cells directly innervating lower motor neurons in the anterior region of the spinal cord. Extrapyramidal neurons do not innervate the lower | PLACE YOUR ORDER NOW AT writtask.com | aid in coordinating the movement of muscles by indirect activation or inhibition of groups of lower motor nerve cells through interneurons (Arslan, 2014).

Compare and Contrast Myelinated and Unmyelinated Fibers

The major distinction between myelinated and unmyelinated fibers is that myelinated nerve fibers are insulated by a myelin sheath, unlike unmyelinated fibers which are | PLACE YOUR ORDER NOW AT writtask.com | is a fatty material causing insulation of the nerve axons to enhance the transmission of nerve impulses between nerve cell bodies (Arslan, 2014).

Myelinated fibers also possess Ranvier nodes while unmyelinated fibers | PLACE YOUR ORDER NOW AT writtask.com | nodes are paces between myelin sheaths axons of nerve cells. They facilitate the rapid transmission of nerve impulses.

Another distinction is that as a result of nodes of Ranvier on myelinated fibers, the rate of nerve impulse transmission in them is higher than in unmyelinated fibers (Arslan, 2014).


Cutsuridis, V. (2013). Bradykinesia models of Parkinson’s disease. Scholarpedia, 8(9), 30937.

Arslan, O. E. (2014). Neuroanatomical basis of clinical neurology. CRC Press.


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