Assignment Help | Emmanuel Case Study

Emmanuel and his mother live in an urban community housing complex. The building is worn down and dirty from the urban dust, cockroaches, and mold. Emmanuel is 5 years of age and has suffered from asthma for the last 2 years. One evening, his mother poured him some milk and put him to bed. Shortly afterward, Emmanuel woke up wheezing and coughing. As he gasped for air, he became more and more anxious. His mother ran for his inhaler, but he was too upset and restless to use it. Emmanuel’s skin became moist with sweat, and as he began to tire, his wheezing became quieter. His mother called 911 and waited anxiously for the ambulance to arrive.



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1. Emmanuel uses a corticosteroid inhaler for the management of his asthma. What is the mechanism of action of this drug? How is its action different from the β2-agonist inhalants?

2. Why does someone with severe asthma become physically fatigued during a prolonged attack? What are the physiological events that occur during an attack?

3. One of the complications of respiratory fatigue is the development of hypercapnia. How does the body compensate for an increase in CO2? What are the effects of hypercapnia on the central nervous system?


Emmanuel Case Study

Mechanism of Action for Corticosteroid Inhaler

The mechanism of action for managing asthma through the use of corticosteroid inhaler involves anti-inflammatory impacts to reduce breathing difficulties and open the airways. This type of inhaler is also known as long-term control or maintenance inhalers, given that they help in attaining and controlling persistent symptoms of asthma, mainly when used daily (Ye, He & D’Urzo, 2017). Corticosteroid inhalers are termed as the essential anti-inflammatory drugs used for long-term care of asthma because they function directly by suppressing the pathogens that cause inflammation in the airways, particularly in the airway secretions and tissues, thus minimizing the effect of airway excess response to induced asthma (Norris, 2019). Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are considered the most effective controllers that physicians recommend in the treatment of asthma because they are the only drugs that can …

Apart from reducing and preventing the swelling | PLACE YOUR ORDER NOW AT | s as well as reducing the rate of mucus production, corticosteroid inhalers can be used in long-term care to enable the airways to be less sensitive to asthma causing agents. However, corticosteroids inhalers do not offer immediate or reduce the immediate impacts of an asthma attack, thus differing from short-acting | PLACE YOUR ORDER NOW AT | inhalers are not preferred for long-term care as well as inflammation treatment, but they can offer immediate relaxation by releasing the compressed bronchial muscle in | PLACE YOUR ORDER NOW AT | attack, β2-agonist facilitates smoother breathing and timely relief (Ye et al., 2017).

Events that Occur During an Attack among Asthma Patients with Severe Conditions

The importance of breathing in the event of severe asthma | PLACE YOUR ORDER NOW AT | increase oxygen demands resulting in physical fatigue. In this case, the airways narrow as a result of bronchospasm, mucus tapping, and bronchial | PLACE YOUR ORDER NOW AT | obstruction leads to prolonged expiration, decreased rate of peak expiratory, and reduces the amount of air with fast expiry | PLACE YOUR ORDER NOW AT | of a long-term asthma attack, the air is typically stuck on the back end of occluded, airways narrow, thus resulting in lung hyperinflation. When the lungs hyperinflate, the residual volume increases…


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