1. Describe the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes.

Case Study
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1
Mr.s M has type 1 diabetic for 15 years. He has just been admitted to the hospital with serve pyelonephritis, a kidney infection.
1. Describe the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes.
2. Explain why urinary tract infections are common in people with diabetes. Explain how acute renal failure could develop.
Mr. M has had the infection for a week and has developed mild ketoacidosis because of the infection. Analysis of arterial blood gases indicates that his serum bicarbonate level is low, and his serum pH is just below the normal range.
3. Explain why infection may lead to ketoacidosis.
4. Describe the characteristics of Mr. M’s respirations that you would expect to observe while ketoacidosis is present. Included the rationale for your answer.
5. If Mr. M ‘s serum pH continues to decrease below normal, how would that pH affect cell and organ function?
6. Mr. M is voiding large volumes of urine polyuria). Explain the reason for this reaction.
7. Describe three signs of excess fluid loss.
8. Mr. M’s vision has deteriorated in the past 3 years because of retinopathy. Explained how retinopathy impairs vision.
9. Describe two problems related to diabetes that MR. M might encounter because of his reduced vision.

Review the case study and answer all the questions posed in the study. Your introductory paragraph should provide a summary of the case and the purpose statement. Remember to provide a citation for each answer. Also note, the case studies do not directly address nutrition and dietary restrictions in DM; however, make sure you are working knowledge of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment; as well as you address not only dietary restrictions, but also how diet plays an active role in both the development of the disease and treatment success.
Reflect on your experience with a patient who had Diabetes Mellitus Type I or II. Discuss your knowledge of physiology compared to pathophysiology relating to this disorder and how equipped you felt to care for this patient. After this week’s study, what piece of advice or pearl of information have you learned?


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Diabetes mellitus is a condition that occurs in a human body when the level of blood sugar rises beyond normal levels. The blood sugar conditions are always controlled and restored by the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas. However, when the sugar rises too high, it surpasses the quantity of pancreatic insulin, thus much of it becoming uncontrollable, causing diabetes mellitus. The condition comes in two types; 1 & 2 whose differences are based on the availability of the insulin. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the insulin-producing cells are damaged, while type 2 occurs when the pancreas produces little or no insulin (Katsarou et al. 2017). The symptoms that Mr. M experiences in the case study provide a range of symptoms that comes with diabetes mellitus. The objective of this paper is to analyze and give an understanding of the conditions experienced by Mr. M in the case study.  

Pathophysiology of Type 1 Diabetes

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 is commonly diagnosed among genetically susceptible people. Different environmental factors may also precipitate this autoimmune disorder. Normally, the immune system of a susceptible individual is prompted to generate an autoimmune reaction to counter modified pancreatic beta cell antigens that resemble a viral protein. A significant number of patients have circulating islet cell antibodies and/or detectable anti-insulin antibodies.  Within pancreatic beta cells (1), a good number of islet cell antibodies tend to fight glumatic acid decarboxylase. Different stakeholders have advanced various scenarios in an attempt to explain the development of Type 1 Diabetes. Some studies have argued that environmental factors prompt islet autoimmunity and death of beta cells in susceptible persons, triggering the onset of the disease. Alternatively, Type 1 Diabetes has been explained as a relapsing-remitting disorder, that is triggered by the cyclical interruption and restoration of the balance between…


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